Published

Calconnect Standard

CC RFC 6350 : 2018
vCard Format Specification
TC
Calconnect Standard
Published

 


 



Foreword

TBD


Introduction

General

Electronic address books have become ubiquitous. Their increased presence on portable, connected devices as well as the diversity of platforms that exchange contact data call for a standard. This memo defines the vCard format, which allows the capture and exchange of information normally stored within an address book or directory application.

A high-level overview of the differences from RFC 2425 and RFC 2426 can be found in Appendix B.

Conventions

The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "NOT RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119.

vCard Format Specification

1.  Scope

This document defines the vCard data format for representing and exchanging a variety of information about individuals and other entities (e.g., formatted and structured name and delivery addresses, email address, multiple telephone numbers, photograph, logo, audio clips, etc.). This document obsoletes RFC 2425, RFC 2426, and RFC 4770, and updates RFC 2739.

2.  Normative references

The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

CCITT Recommendation X520, International Telephone and Telegraph Consultative Committee, Information Technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Selected Attribute Types. 1988.

IEEE 754, Standard for Binary Floating-Point Arithmetic. 2008.

ISO 8601:2000, Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times.

ISO 8601:2004, Data elements and interchange formats — Information interchange — Representation of dates and times.

IETF RFC 2045, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part One: Format of Internet Message Bodies

IETF RFC 2046, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types

IETF RFC 2119, Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels

IETF RFC 2739, Calendar Attributes for vCard and LDAP

IETF RFC 3629, UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646

IETF RFC 3966, The tel URI for Telephone Numbers

IETF RFC 3986, Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax

IETF RFC 4122, A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace

IETF RFC 4288, Media Type Specifications and Registration Procedures

IETF RFC 5234, Augmented BNF for Syntax Specifications: ABNF

IETF RFC 5322, Internet Message Format

IETF RFC 5545, Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification (iCalendar)

IETF RFC 5546, iCalendar Transport-Independent Interoperability Protocol (iTIP)

IETF RFC 5646, Tags for Identifying Languages

IETF RFC 5870, A Uniform Resource Identifier for Geographic Locations ('geo' URI)

IETF RFC 6351, xCard: vCard XML Representation

W3C REC-xml-20081126, E. Maler, Yergeau, F., Sperberg-McQueen, C., Paoli, J., T. Bray. Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition). 2008. http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126

XFN, T. Celik, M. Mullenweg, E. Meyer. XFN 1.1 profile. http://gmpg.org/xfn/11

3.  Terms and definitions

No terms and definitions are listed in this document.

4.  vCard Format Specification

4.1. General

The text/vcard MIME content type (hereafter known as "vCard"; see Clause 11.1) contains contact information, typically pertaining to a single contact or group of contacts. The content consists of one or more lines in the format given below.

4.2. Charset

The charset (see RFC 3536 for internationalization terminology) for vCard is UTF-8 as defined in RFC 3629. There is no way to override this. It is invalid to specify a value other than "UTF-8" in the "charset" MIME parameter (see Clause 11.1).

4.3. Line Delimiting and Folding

Individual lines within vCard are delimited by the RFC 5322 line break, which is a CRLF sequence (U+000D followed by U+000A). Long logical lines of text can be split into a multiple-physical-line representation using the following folding technique. Content lines SHOULD be folded to a maximum width of 75 octets, excluding the line break. Multi-octet characters MUST remain contiguous. The rationale for this folding process can be found in RFC 5322, Section 2.1.1.

A logical line MAY be continued on the next physical line anywhere between two characters by inserting a CRLF immediately followed by a single white space character (space (U+0020) or horizontal tab (U+0009)). The folded line MUST contain at least one character. Any sequence of CRLF followed immediately by a single white space character is ignored (removed) when processing the content type. For example, the line:

  NOTE:This is a long description that exists on a long line.

can be represented as:

  NOTE:This is a long description
    that exists on a long line.

It could also be represented as:

  NOTE:This is a long descrip
   tion that exists o
   n a long line.

The process of moving from this folded multiple-line representation of a property definition to its single-line representation is called unfolding. Unfolding is accomplished by regarding CRLF immediately followed by a white space character (namely, HTAB (U+0009) or SPACE (U+0020)) as equivalent to no characters at all (i.e., the CRLF and single white space character are removed).

Note: It is possible for very simple implementations to generate improperly folded lines in the middle of a UTF-8 multi-octet sequence. For this reason, implementations SHOULD unfold lines in such a way as to properly restore the original sequence.

Note: Unfolding is done differently than in RFC 5322. Unfolding in RFC 5322 only removes the CRLF, not the space following it.

Folding is done after any content encoding of a type value. Unfolding is done before any decoding of a type value in a content line.

4.4. ABNF Format Definition

The following ABNF uses the notation of RFC 5234, which also defines CRLF, WSP, DQUOTE, VCHAR, ALPHA, and DIGIT.

vcard-entity = 1*vcard

vcard = "BEGIN:VCARD" CRLF
        "VERSION:4.0" CRLF
        1*contentline
        "END:VCARD" CRLF
  ; A vCard object MUST include the VERSION and FN properties.
  ; VERSION MUST come immediately after BEGIN:VCARD.

contentline = [group "."] name *(";" param) ":" value CRLF
  ; When parsing a content line, folded lines must first
  ; be unfolded according to the unfolding procedure
  ; described in Section 3.2.
  ; When generating a content line, lines longer than 75
  ; characters SHOULD be folded according to the folding
  ; procedure described in Section 3.2.

group = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
name  = "SOURCE" / "KIND" / "FN" / "N" / "NICKNAME"
      / "PHOTO" / "BDAY" / "ANNIVERSARY" / "GENDER" / "ADR" / "TEL"
      / "EMAIL" / "IMPP" / "LANG" / "TZ" / "GEO" / "TITLE" / "ROLE"
      / "LOGO" / "ORG" / "MEMBER" / "RELATED" / "CATEGORIES"
      / "NOTE" / "PRODID" / "REV" / "SOUND" / "UID" / "CLIENTPIDMAP"
      / "URL" / "KEY" / "FBURL" / "CALADRURI" / "CALURI" / "XML"
      / iana-token / x-name
  ; Parsing of the param and value is based on the "name" as
  ; defined in ABNF sections below.
  ; Group and name are case-insensitive.

iana-token = 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
  ; identifier registered with IANA

x-name = "x-" 1*(ALPHA / DIGIT / "-")
  ; Names that begin with "x-" or "X-" are
  ; reserved for experimental use, not intended for released
  ; products, or for use in bilateral agreements.

param = language-param / value-param / pref-param / pid-param
      / type-param / geo-parameter / tz-parameter / sort-as-param
      / calscale-param / any-param
  ; Allowed parameters depend on property name.

param-value = *SAFE-CHAR / DQUOTE *QSAFE-CHAR DQUOTE

any-param  = (iana-token / x-name) "=" param-value *("," param-value)

NON-ASCII = UTF8-2 / UTF8-3 / UTF8-4
  ; UTF8-{2,3,4} are defined in IETF RFC 3629

QSAFE-CHAR = WSP / "!" / %x23-7E / NON-ASCII
  ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE

SAFE-CHAR = WSP / "!" / %x23-39 / %x3C-7E / NON-ASCII
  ; Any character except CTLs, DQUOTE, ";", ":"

VALUE-CHAR = WSP / VCHAR / NON-ASCII
  ; Any textual character

A line that begins with a white space character is a continuation of the previous line, as described in Clause 4.3. The white space character and immediately preceeding CRLF should be discarded when reconstructing the original line. Note that this line-folding convention differs from that found in RFC 5322, in that the sequence <CRLF><WSP> found anywhere in the content indicates a continued line and should be removed.

Property names and parameter names are case-insensitive (e.g., the property name "fn" is the same as "FN" and "Fn"). Parameter values MAY be case-sensitive or case-insensitive, depending on their definition. Parameter values that are not explicitly defined as being case-sensitive are case-insensitive. Based on experience with vCard 3 interoperability, it is RECOMMENDED that property and parameter names be upper-case on output.

The group construct is used to group related properties together. The group name is a syntactic convention used to indicate that all property names prefaced with the same group name SHOULD be grouped together when displayed by an application. It has no other significance. Implementations that do not understand or support grouping MAY simply strip off any text before a "." to the left of the type name and present the types and values as normal.

Property cardinalities are indicated using the following notation, which is based on ABNF (see RFC 5234, Section 3.6):

Table 1

Cardinality Meaning
1 Exactly one instance per vCard MUST be present.
*1 Exactly one instance per vCard MAY be present.
1* One or more instances per vCard MUST be present.
* One or more instances per vCard MAY be present.

Properties defined in a vCard instance may have multiple values depending on the property cardinality. The general rule for encoding multi-valued properties is to simply create a new content line for each value (including the property name). However, it should be noted that some value types support encoding multiple values in a single content line by separating the values with a comma ",". This approach has been taken for several of the content types defined below (date, time, integer, float).

4.5. Property Value Escaping

Some properties may contain one or more values delimited by a COMMA character (U+002C). Therefore, a COMMA character in a value MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH character (U+005C), even for properties that don’t allow multiple instances (for consistency).

Some properties (e.g., N and ADR) comprise multiple fields delimited by a SEMICOLON character (U+003B). Therefore, a SEMICOLON in a field of such a "compound" property MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH character. SEMICOLON characters in non-compound properties MAY be escaped. On input, an escaped SEMICOLON character is never a field separator. An unescaped SEMICOLON character may be a field separator, depending on the property in which it appears.

Furthermore, some fields of compound properties may contain a list of values delimited by a COMMA character. Therefore, a COMMA character in one of a field’s values MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH character, even for fields that don’t allow multiple values (for consistency). Compound properties allowing multiple instances MUST NOT be encoded in a single content line.

Finally, BACKSLASH characters in values MUST be escaped with a BACKSLASH character. NEWLINE (U+000A) characters in values MUST be encoded by two characters: a BACKSLASH followed by either an 'n' (U+006E) or an 'N' (U+004E).

In all other cases, escaping MUST NOT be used.

5.  Property Value Data Types

5.1. General

Standard value types are defined below.

  value = text
        / text-list
        / date-list
        / time-list
        / date-time-list
        / date-and-or-time-list
        / timestamp-list
        / boolean
        / integer-list
        / float-list
        / URI               ; from Section 3 of IETF RFC 3986
        / utc-offset
        / Language-Tag
        / iana-valuespec
    ; Actual value type depends on property name and VALUE parameter.

  text = *TEXT-CHAR

  TEXT-CHAR = "\\" / "\," / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
            / %x21-2B / %x2D-5B / %x5D-7E
     ; Backslashes, commas, and newlines must be encoded.

  component = "\\" / "\," / "\;" / "\n" / WSP / NON-ASCII
            / %x21-2B / %x2D-3A / %x3C-5B / %x5D-7E
  list-component = component *("," component)

  text-list             = text             *("," text)
  date-list             = date             *("," date)
  time-list             = time             *("," time)
  date-time-list        = date-time        *("," date-time)
  date-and-or-time-list = date-and-or-time *("," date-and-or-time)
  timestamp-list        = timestamp        *("," timestamp)
  integer-list          = integer          *("," integer)
  float-list            = float            *("," float)

  boolean = "TRUE" / "FALSE"
  integer = [sign] 1*DIGIT
  float   = [sign] 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

  sign = "+" / "-"

  year   = 4DIGIT  ; 0000-9999
  month  = 2DIGIT  ; 01-12
  day    = 2DIGIT  ; 01-28/29/30/31 depending on month and leap year
  hour   = 2DIGIT  ; 00-23
  minute = 2DIGIT  ; 00-59
  second = 2DIGIT  ; 00-58/59/60 depending on leap second
  zone   = utc-designator / utc-offset
  utc-designator = %x5A  ; uppercase "Z"

  date          = year    [month  day]
                / year "-" month
                / "--"     month [day]
                / "--"      "-"   day
  date-noreduc  = year     month  day
                / "--"     month  day
                / "--"      "-"   day
  date-complete = year     month  day

  time          = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
                /  "-"  minute [second]  [zone]
                /  "-"   "-"    second   [zone]
  time-notrunc  = hour [minute [second]] [zone]
  time-complete = hour  minute  second   [zone]


  time-designator = %x54  ; uppercase "T"
  date-time = date-noreduc  time-designator time-notrunc
  timestamp = date-complete time-designator time-complete

  date-and-or-time = date-time / date / time-designator time

  utc-offset = sign hour [minute]

  Language-Tag = <Language-Tag, defined in IETF RFC 5646, Section 2.1>

  iana-valuespec = <value-spec, see Section 12>
                 ; a publicly defined valuetype format, registered
                 ; with IANA, as defined in Section 12 of this
                 ; document.

5.2. TEXT

"text": The "text" value type should be used to identify values that contain human-readable text. As for the language, it is controlled by the LANGUAGE property parameter defined in Clause 6.2.

Examples for "text":

    this is a text value
    this is one value,this is another
    this is a single value\, with a comma encoded

A formatted text line break in a text value type MUST be represented as the character sequence backslash (U+005C) followed by a Latin small letter n (U+006E) or a Latin capital letter N (U+004E), that is, "\n" or "\N".

For example, a multiple line NOTE value of:

    Mythical Manager
    Hyjinx Software Division
    BabsCo, Inc.

could be represented as:

    NOTE:Mythical Manager\nHyjinx Software Division\n
     BabsCo\, Inc.\n

demonstrating the \n literal formatted line break technique, the CRLF-followed-by-space line folding technique, and the backslash escape technique.

5.3. URI

"uri": The "uri" value type should be used to identify values that are referenced by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) instead of encoded in-line. These value references might be used if the value is too large, or otherwise undesirable to include directly. The format for the URI is as defined in RFC 3986, Section 3. Note that the value of a property of type "uri" is what the URI points to, not the URI itself.

Examples for "uri":

    http://www.example.com/my/picture.jpg
    ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=babs%20jensen

5.4. DATE, TIME, DATE-TIME, DATE-AND-OR-TIME, and TIMESTAMP

5.4.1. General

"date", "time", "date-time", "date-and-or-time", and "timestamp": Each of these value types is based on the definitions in ISO 8601:2004. Multiple such values can be specified using the comma-separated notation.

Only the basic format is supported.

5.4.2. DATE

A calendar date as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.1.2].

Reduced accuracy, as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.1.2.3 a) and b), but not c), is permitted.

Expanded representation, as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.1.4, is forbidden.

Truncated representation, as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 5.2.1.3 d), e), and f), is permitted.

Examples for "date":

          19850412
          1985-04
          1985
          --0412
          ---12


Note the use of YYYY-MM in the second example above. YYYYMM is disallowed to prevent confusion with YYMMDD. Note also that YYYY-MM-DD is disallowed since we are using the basic format instead of the extended format.

5.4.3. TIME

A time of day as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.2.

Reduced accuracy, as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.2.2.3, is permitted.

Representation with decimal fraction, as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.2.2.4, is forbidden.

The midnight hour is always represented by 00, never 24 (see ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.2.3).

Truncated representation, as specified in ISO 8601:2000, Clause 5.3.1.4 a), b), and c), is permitted.

Examples for "time":

          102200
          1022
          10
          -2200
          --00
          102200Z
          102200-0800

5.4.4. DATE-TIME

A date and time of day combination as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.3.

Truncation of the date part, as specified in ISO 8601:2000, Clause 5.4.2 c), is permitted.

Examples for "date-time":

          19961022T140000
          --1022T1400
          ---22T14

5.4.5. DATE-AND-OR-TIME

Either a DATE-TIME, a DATE, or a TIME value. To allow unambiguous interpretation, a stand-alone TIME value is always preceded by a "T".

Examples for "date-and-or-time":

          19961022T140000
          --1022T1400
          ---22T14
          19850412
          1985-04
          1985
          --0412
          ---12
          T102200
          T1022
          T10
          T-2200
          T--00
          T102200Z
          T102200-0800

5.4.6. TIMESTAMP

A complete date and time of day combination as specified in ISO 8601:2004, Clause 4.3.2.

Examples for "timestamp":

          19961022T140000
          19961022T140000Z
          19961022T140000-05
          19961022T140000-0500

5.5. BOOLEAN

"boolean": The "boolean" value type is used to express boolean values. These values are case-insensitive.

Examples:

    TRUE
    false
    True

5.6. INTEGER

"integer": The "integer" value type is used to express signed integers in decimal format. If sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+". Multiple "integer" values can be specified using the comma-separated notation. The maximum value is 9223372036854775807, and the minimum value is -9223372036854775808. These limits correspond to a signed 64-bit integer using two’s- complement arithmetic.

Examples:

    1234567890
    -1234556790
    +1234556790,432109876

5.7. FLOAT

"float": The "float" value type is used to express real numbers. If sign is not specified, the value is assumed positive "+". Multiple "float" values can be specified using the comma-separated notation. Implementations MUST support a precision equal or better than that of the IEEE "binary64" format IEEE 754.

Note: Scientific notation is disallowed. Implementers wishing to use their favorite language’s %f formatting should be careful.

Examples:

    20.30
    1000000.0000001
    1.333,3.14

5.8. UTC-OFFSET

"utc-offset": The "utc-offset" value type specifies that the property value is a signed offset from UTC. This value type can be specified in the TZ property.

The value type is an offset from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). It is specified as a positive or negative difference in units of hours and minutes (e.g., +hhmm). The time is specified as a 24-hour clock. Hour values are from 00 to 23, and minute values are from 00 to 59. Hour and minutes are 2 digits with high-order zeroes required to maintain digit count. The basic format for ISO 8601 UTC offsets MUST be used.

5.9. LANGUAGE-TAG

"language-tag": A single language tag, as defined in RFC 5646.

6.  Property Parameters

6.1. General

A property can have attributes associated with it. These "property parameters" contain meta-information about the property or the property value. In some cases, the property parameter can be multi- valued in which case the property parameter value elements are separated by a COMMA (U+002C).

Property parameter value elements that contain the COLON (U+003A), SEMICOLON (U+003B), or COMMA (U+002C) character separators MUST be specified as quoted-string text values. Property parameter values MUST NOT contain the DQUOTE (U+0022) character. The DQUOTE character is used as a delimiter for parameter values that contain restricted characters or URI text.

Applications MUST ignore x-param and iana-param values they don’t recognize.

6.2. LANGUAGE

The LANGUAGE property parameter is used to identify data in multiple languages. There is no concept of "default" language, except as specified by any "Content-Language" MIME header parameter that is present RFC 3282. The value of the LANGUAGE property parameter is a language tag as defined in RFC 5646, Section 2.

Examples:

  ROLE;LANGUAGE=tr:hoca

ABNF:

        language-param = "LANGUAGE=" Language-Tag
          ; Language-Tag is defined in section 2.1 of IETF RFC 5646

6.3. VALUE

The VALUE parameter is OPTIONAL, used to identify the value type (data type) and format of the value. The use of these predefined formats is encouraged even if the value parameter is not explicitly used. By defining a standard set of value types and their formats, existing parsing and processing code can be leveraged. The predefined data type values MUST NOT be repeated in COMMA-separated value lists except within the N, NICKNAME, ADR, and CATEGORIES properties.

ABNF:

  value-param = "VALUE=" value-type

  value-type = "text"
             / "uri"
             / "date"
             / "time"
             / "date-time"
             / "date-and-or-time"
             / "timestamp"
             / "boolean"
             / "integer"
             / "float"
             / "utc-offset"
             / "language-tag"
             / iana-token  ; registered as described in section 12
             / x-name

6.4. PREF

The PREF parameter is OPTIONAL and is used to indicate that the corresponding instance of a property is preferred by the vCard author. Its value MUST be an integer between 1 and 100 that quantifies the level of preference. Lower values correspond to a higher level of preference, with 1 being most preferred.

When the parameter is absent, the default MUST be to interpret the property instance as being least preferred.

Note that the value of this parameter is to be interpreted only in relation to values assigned to other instances of the same property in the same vCard. A given value, or the absence of a value, MUST NOT be interpreted on its own.

This parameter MAY be applied to any property that allows multiple instances.

ABNF:

        pref-param = "PREF=" (1*2DIGIT / "100")
                             ; An integer between 1 and 100.

6.5. ALTID

The ALTID parameter is used to "tag" property instances as being alternative representations of the same logical property. For example, translations of a property in multiple languages generates multiple property instances having different LANGUAGE (Clause 6.2) parameter that are tagged with the same ALTID value.

This parameter’s value is treated as an opaque string. Its sole purpose is to be compared for equality against other ALTID parameter values.

Two property instances are considered alternative representations of the same logical property if and only if their names as well as the value of their ALTID parameters are identical. Property instances without the ALTID parameter MUST NOT be considered an alternative representation of any other property instance. Values for the ALTID parameter are not globally unique: they MAY be reused for different property names.

Property instances having the same ALTID parameter value count as 1 toward cardinality. Therefore, since N (Clause 7.3.3) has cardinality *1 and TITLE (Clause 7.7.2) has cardinality *, these three examples would be legal:

  N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
  N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Yamada;Taro;;;
  (<U+XXXX> denotes a UTF8-encoded Unicode character.)
  TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
  TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Boss
  TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
  TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Boss
  TITLE;ALTID=2;LANGUAGE=en:Chief vCard Evangelist

while this one would not:

  N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
  N:Yamada;Taro;;;
  (Two instances of the N property.)

and these three would be legal but questionable:

  TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
  TITLE;ALTID=2;LANGUAGE=en:Boss
  (Should probably have the same ALTID value.)
  TITLE;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=fr:Patron
  TITLE:LANGUAGE=en:Boss
  (Second line should probably have ALTID=1.)
  N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=jp:<U+5C71><U+7530>;<U+592A><U+90CE>;;;
  N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Yamada;Taro;;;
  N;ALTID=1;LANGUAGE=en:Smith;John;;;
  (The last line should probably have ALTID=2.  But that would be
   illegal because N has cardinality *1.)

The ALTID property MAY also be used in may contexts other than with the LANGUAGE parameter. Here’s an example with two representations of the same photo in different file formats:

  PHOTO;ALTID=1:data:image/jpeg;base64,...
  PHOTO;ALTID=1;data:image/jp2;base64,...


ABNF:

        altid-param = "ALTID=" param-value

6.6. PID

The PID parameter is used to identify a specific property among multiple instances. It plays a role analogous to the UID property (Clause 7.8.7) on a per-property instead of per-vCard basis. It MAY appear more than once in a given property. It MUST NOT appear on properties that may have only one instance per vCard. Its value is either a single small positive integer or a pair of small positive integers separated by a dot. Multiple values may be encoded in a single PID parameter by separating the values with a comma ",". See Clause 8 for more details on its usage.

ABNF:

        pid-param = "PID=" pid-value *("," pid-value)
        pid-value = 1*DIGIT ["." 1*DIGIT]

6.7. TYPE

The TYPE parameter has multiple, different uses. In general, it is a way of specifying class characteristics of the associated property. Most of the time, its value is a comma-separated subset of a predefined enumeration. In this document, the following properties make use of this parameter: FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO, ADR, TEL, EMAIL, IMPP, LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, ORG, RELATED, CATEGORIES, NOTE, SOUND, URL, KEY, FBURL, CALADRURI, and CALURI. The TYPE parameter MUST NOT be applied on other properties defined in this document.

The "work" and "home" values act like tags. The "work" value implies that the property is related to an individual’s work place, while the "home" value implies that the property is related to an individual’s personal life. When neither "work" nor "home" is present, it is implied that the property is related to both an individual’s work place and personal life in the case that the KIND property’s value is "individual", or to none in other cases.

ABNF:

       type-param = "TYPE=" type-value *("," type-value)

        type-value = "work" / "home" / type-param-tel
                   / type-param-related / iana-token / x-name
          ; This is further defined in individual property sections.

6.8. MEDIATYPE

The MEDIATYPE parameter is used with properties whose value is a URI. Its use is OPTIONAL. It provides a hint to the vCard consumer application about the media type RFC 2046 of the resource identified by the URI. Some URI schemes do not need this parameter. For example, the "data" scheme allows the media type to be explicitly indicated as part of the URI RFC 2397. Another scheme, "http", provides the media type as part of the URI resolution process, with the Content-Type HTTP header RFC 2616. The MEDIATYPE parameter is intended to be used with URI schemes that do not provide such functionality (e.g., "ftp" RFC 1738).

ABNF:

  mediatype-param = "MEDIATYPE=" mediatype
  mediatype = type-name "/" subtype-name *( ";" attribute "=" value )
    ; "attribute" and "value" are from IETF RFC 2045
    ; "type-name" and "subtype-name" are from [RFC4288]

6.9. CALSCALE

The CALSCALE parameter is identical to the CALSCALE property in iCalendar (see RFC 5545, Section 3.7.1). It is used to define the calendar system in which a date or date-time value is expressed. The only value specified by iCalendar is "gregorian", which stands for the Gregorian system. It is the default when the parameter is absent. Additional values may be defined in extension documents and registered with IANA (see Clause 11.3.5). A vCard implementation MUST ignore properties with a CALSCALE parameter value that it does not understand.

ABNF:

        calscale-param = "CALSCALE=" calscale-value

        calscale-value = "gregorian" / iana-token / x-name

6.10. SORT-AS

The "sort-as" parameter is used to specify the string to be used for national-language-specific sorting. Without this information, sorting algorithms could incorrectly sort this vCard within a sequence of sorted vCards. When this property is present in a vCard, then the given strings are used for sorting the vCard.

This parameter’s value is a comma-separated list that MUST have as many or fewer elements as the corresponding property value has components. This parameter’s value is case-sensitive.

ABNF:

  sort-as-param = "SORT-AS=" sort-as-value

  sort-as-value = param-value *("," param-value)

Examples: For the case of surname and given name sorting, the following examples define common sort string usage with the N property.

        FN:Rene van der Harten
        N;SORT-AS="Harten,Rene":van der Harten;Rene,J.;Sir;R.D.O.N.
        FN:Robert Pau Shou Chang
        N;SORT-AS="Pau Shou Chang,Robert":Shou Chang;Robert,Pau;;
        FN:Osamu Koura
        N;SORT-AS="Koura,Osamu":Koura;Osamu;;
        FN:Oscar del Pozo
        N;SORT-AS="Pozo,Oscar":del Pozo Triscon;Oscar;;
        FN:Chistine d'Aboville
        N;SORT-AS="Aboville,Christine":d'Aboville;Christine;;
        FN:H. James de Mann
        N;SORT-AS="Mann,James":de Mann;Henry,James;;

If sorted by surname, the results would be:

        Christine d'Aboville
        Rene van der Harten
        Osamu Koura
        H. James de Mann
        Robert Pau Shou Chang
        Oscar del Pozo

If sorted by given name, the results would be:

        Christine d'Aboville
        H. James de Mann
        Osamu Koura
        Oscar del Pozo
        Rene van der Harten
        Robert Pau Shou Chang

6.11. GEO

The GEO parameter can be used to indicate global positioning information that is specific to an address. Its value is the same as that of the GEO property (see Clause 7.6.3).

ABNF:

  geo-parameter = "GEO=" DQUOTE URI DQUOTE

6.12. TZ

The TZ parameter can be used to indicate time zone information that is specific to an address. Its value is the same as that of the TZ property.

ABNF:

  tz-parameter = "TZ=" (param-value / DQUOTE URI DQUOTE)

7.  vCard Properties

7.1. General

What follows is an enumeration of the standard vCard properties.

7.2. General Properties

7.2.1. BEGIN

Purpose:

To denote the beginning of a syntactic entity within a text/vcard content-type.

Value type:

text

Cardinality:

1

Special notes:

The content entity MUST begin with the BEGIN property with a value of "VCARD". The value is case-insensitive.

The BEGIN property is used in conjunction with the END property to delimit an entity containing a related set of properties within a text/vcard content-type. This construct can be used instead of including multiple vCards as body parts inside of a multipart/ alternative MIME message. It is provided for applications that wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within the same text/vcard content-type or to define content that can be identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

ABNF:

  BEGIN-param = 0" "  ; no parameter allowed
  BEGIN-value = "VCARD"

Example:

      BEGIN:VCARD

7.2.2. END

Purpose:

To denote the end of a syntactic entity within a text/vcard content-type.

Value type:

text

Cardinality:

1

Special notes:

The content entity MUST end with the END type with a value of "VCARD". The value is case-insensitive.

The END property is used in conjunction with the BEGIN property to delimit an entity containing a related set of properties within a text/vcard content-type. This construct can be used instead of or in addition to wrapping separate sets of information inside additional MIME headers. It is provided for applications that wish to define content that can contain multiple entities within the same text/vcard content-type or to define content that can be identifiable outside of a MIME environment.

ABNF:

  END-param = 0" "  ; no parameter allowed
  END-value = "VCARD"

Example:

      END:VCARD

7.2.3. SOURCE

Purpose:

To identify the source of directory information contained in the content type.

Value type:

uri

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The SOURCE property is used to provide the means by which applications knowledgable in the given directory service protocol can obtain additional or more up-to-date information from the directory service. It contains a URI as defined in RFC 3986 and/or other information referencing the vCard to which the information pertains. When directory information is available from more than one source, the sending entity can pick what it considers to be the best source, or multiple SOURCE properties can be included.

ABNF:

  SOURCE-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param
               / mediatype-param / any-param
  SOURCE-value = URI

Examples:

  SOURCE:ldap://ldap.example.com/cn=Babs%20Jensen,%20o=Babsco,%20c=US
  SOURCE:http://directory.example.com/addressbooks/jdoe/
   Jean%20Dupont.vcf

7.2.4. KIND

Purpose:

To specify the kind of object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

*1

Special notes:

The value may be one of the following:

"individual"

for a vCard representing a single person or entity. This is the default kind of vCard.

"group"

for a vCard representing a group of persons or entities. The group’s member entities can be other vCards or other types of entities, such as email addresses or web sites. A group vCard will usually contain MEMBER properties to specify the members of the group, but it is not required to. A group vCard without MEMBER properties can be considered an abstract grouping, or one whose members are known empirically (perhaps "IETF Participants" or "Republican U.S. Senators").

All properties in a group vCard apply to the group as a whole, and not to any particular MEMBER. For example, an EMAIL property might specify the address of a mailing list associated with the group, and an IMPP property might refer to a group chat room.

"org"

for a vCard representing an organization. An organization vCard will not (in fact, MUST NOT) contain MEMBER properties, and so these are something of a cross between "individual" and "group". An organization is a single entity, but not a person. It might represent a business or government, a department or division within a business or government, a club, an association, or the like.

All properties in an organization vCard apply to the organization as a whole, as is the case with a group vCard. For example, an EMAIL property might specify the address of a contact point for the organization.

"location"

for a named geographical place. A location vCard will usually contain a GEO property, but it is not required to. A location vCard without a GEO property can be considered an abstract location, or one whose definition is known empirically (perhaps "New England" or "The Seashore").

All properties in a location vCard apply to the location itself, and not with any entity that might exist at that location. For example, in a vCard for an office building, an ADR property might give the mailing address for the building, and a TEL property might specify the telephone number of the receptionist.

An x-name.

vCards MAY include private or experimental values for KIND. Remember that x-name values are not intended for general use and are unlikely to interoperate.

An iana-token.

Additional values may be registered with IANA (see Clause 11.3.5). A new value’s specification document MUST specify which properties make sense for that new kind of vCard and which do not.

Implementations MUST support the specific string values defined above. If this property is absent, "individual" MUST be assumed as the default. If this property is present but the implementation does not understand its value (the value is an x-name or iana-token that the implementation does not support), the implementation SHOULD act in a neutral way, which usually means treating the vCard as though its kind were "individual". The presence of MEMBER properties MAY, however, be taken as an indication that the unknown kind is an extension of "group".

Clients often need to visually distinguish contacts based on what they represent, and the KIND property provides a direct way for them to do so. For example, when displaying contacts in a list, an icon could be displayed next to each one, using distinctive icons for the different kinds; a client might use an outline of a single person to represent an "individual", an outline of multiple people to represent a "group", and so on. Alternatively, or in addition, a client might choose to segregate different kinds of vCards to different panes, tabs, or selections in the user interface.

Some clients might also make functional distinctions among the kinds, ignoring "location" vCards for some purposes and considering only "location" vCards for others.

When designing those sorts of visual and functional distinctions, client implementations have to decide how to fit unsupported kinds into the scheme. What icon is used for them? The one for "individual"? A unique one, such as an icon of a question mark? Which tab do they go into? It is beyond the scope of this specification to answer these questions, but these are things implementers need to consider.

ABNF:

  KIND-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
  KIND-value = "individual" / "group" / "org" / "location"
             / iana-token / x-name

Example:

This represents someone named Jane Doe working in the marketing department of the North American division of ABC Inc.

      BEGIN:VCARD
      VERSION:4.0
      KIND:individual
      FN:Jane Doe
      ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing
      END:VCARD

This represents the department itself, commonly known as ABC Marketing.

      BEGIN:VCARD
      VERSION:4.0
      KIND:org
      FN:ABC Marketing
      ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing
      END:VCARD

7.2.5. XML

Purpose:

To include extended XML-encoded vCard data in a plain vCard.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The content of this property is a single XML 1.0 W3C REC-xml-20081126 element whose namespace MUST be explicitly specified using the xmlns attribute and MUST NOT be the vCard 4 namespace ("urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:vcard-4.0"). (This implies that it cannot duplicate a standard vCard property.) The element is to be interpreted as if it was contained in a <vcard> element, as defined in RFC 6351.

The fragment is subject to normal line folding and escaping, i.e., replace all backslashes with "\\", then replace all newlines with "\n", then fold long lines.

Support for this property is OPTIONAL, but implementations of this specification MUST preserve instances of this property when propagating vCards.

See RFC 6351 for more information on the intended use of this property.

ABNF:

  XML-param = "VALUE=text" / altid-param
  XML-value = text

7.3. Identification Properties

7.3.1. General

These types are used to capture information associated with the identification and naming of the entity associated with the vCard.

7.3.2. FN

Purpose:

To specify the formatted text corresponding to the name of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

1*

Special notes:

This property is based on the semantics of the X.520 Common Name attribute CCITT Recommendation X520. The property MUST be present in the vCard object.

ABNF:

  FN-param = "VALUE=text" / type-param / language-param / altid-param
           / pid-param / pref-param / any-param
  FN-value = text

Example:

      FN:Mr. John Q. Public\, Esq.

7.3.3. N

Purpose:

To specify the components of the name of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single structured text value. Each component can have multiple values.

Cardinality:

*1

Special note:

The structured property value corresponds, in sequence, to the Family Names (also known as surnames), Given Names, Additional Names, Honorific Prefixes, and Honorific Suffixes. The text components are separated by the SEMICOLON character (U+003B). Individual text components can include multiple text values separated by the COMMA character (U+002C). This property is based on the semantics of the X.520 individual name attributes CCITT Recommendation X520. The property SHOULD be present in the vCard object when the name of the object the vCard represents follows the X.520 model.

The SORT-AS parameter MAY be applied to this property.

ABNF:

  N-param = "VALUE=text" / sort-as-param / language-param
          / altid-param / any-param
  N-value = list-component 4(";" list-component)

Examples:

          N:Public;John;Quinlan;Mr.;Esq.

          N:Stevenson;John;Philip,Paul;Dr.;Jr.,M.D.,A.C.P.

7.3.4. NICKNAME

Purpose:

To specify the text corresponding to the nickname of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

One or more text values separated by a COMMA character (U+002C).

Cardinality:

*

Special note:

The nickname is the descriptive name given instead of or in addition to the one belonging to the object the vCard represents. It can also be used to specify a familiar form of a proper name specified by the FN or N properties.

ABNF:

  NICKNAME-param = "VALUE=text" / type-param / language-param
                 / altid-param / pid-param / pref-param / any-param
  NICKNAME-value = text-list

Examples:

          NICKNAME:Robbie

          NICKNAME:Jim,Jimmie

          NICKNAME;TYPE=work:Boss

7.3.5. PHOTO

Purpose:

To specify an image or photograph information that annotates some aspect of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single URI.

Cardinality:

*

ABNF:

  PHOTO-param = "VALUE=uri" / altid-param / type-param
              / mediatype-param / pref-param / pid-param / any-param
  PHOTO-value = URI

Examples:

    PHOTO:http://www.example.com/pub/photos/jqpublic.gif

    PHOTO:data:image/jpeg;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhv
     AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
     ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
     <...remainder of base64-encoded data...>

7.3.6. BDAY

Purpose:

To specify the birth date of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

The default is a single date-and-or-time value. It can also be reset to a single text value.

Cardinality:

*1

ABNF:

  BDAY-param = BDAY-param-date / BDAY-param-text
  BDAY-value = date-and-or-time / text
    ; Value and parameter MUST match.

  BDAY-param-date = "VALUE=date-and-or-time"
  BDAY-param-text = "VALUE=text" / language-param

  BDAY-param =/ altid-param / calscale-param / any-param
    ; calscale-param can only be present when BDAY-value is
    ; date-and-or-time and actually contains a date or date-time.

Examples:

          BDAY:19960415
          BDAY:--0415
          BDAY;19531015T231000Z
          BDAY;VALUE=text:circa 1800

7.3.7. ANNIVERSARY

Purpose:

The date of marriage, or equivalent, of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

The default is a single date-and-or-time value. It can also be reset to a single text value.

Cardinality:

*1

ABNF:

  ANNIVERSARY-param = "VALUE=" ("date-and-or-time" / "text")
  ANNIVERSARY-value = date-and-or-time / text
    ; Value and parameter MUST match.

  ANNIVERSARY-param =/ altid-param / calscale-param / any-param
    ; calscale-param can only be present when ANNIVERSARY-value is
    ; date-and-or-time and actually contains a date or date-time.

Examples:

          ANNIVERSARY:19960415

7.3.8. GENDER

Purpose:

To specify the components of the sex and gender identity of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single structured value with two components. Each component has a single text value.

Cardinality:

*1

Special notes:

The components correspond, in sequence, to the sex (biological), and gender identity. Each component is optional.

Sex component:

A single letter. M stands for "male", F stands for "female", O stands for "other", N stands for "none or not applicable", U stands for "unknown".

Gender identity component:

Free-form text.

ABNF:

                GENDER-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
                GENDER-value = sex [";" text]

                sex = "" / "M" / "F" / "O" / "N" / "U"

Examples:

  GENDER:M
  GENDER:F
  GENDER:M;Fellow
  GENDER:F;grrrl
  GENDER:O;intersex
  GENDER:;it's complicated

7.4. Delivery Addressing Properties

7.4.1. General

These types are concerned with information related to the delivery addressing or label for the vCard object.

7.4.2. ADR

Purpose:

To specify the components of the delivery address for the vCard object.

Value type:

A single structured text value, separated by the SEMICOLON character (U+003B).

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The structured type value consists of a sequence of address components. The component values MUST be specified in their corresponding position. The structured type value corresponds, in sequence, to

  • the post office box;

  • the extended address (e.g., apartment or suite number);

  • the street address;

  • the locality (e.g., city);

  • the region (e.g., state or province);

  • the postal code;

  • the country name (full name in the language specified in Clause 6.2).

When a component value is missing, the associated component separator MUST still be specified.

Experience with vCard 3 has shown that the first two components (post office box and extended address) are plagued with many interoperability issues. To ensure maximal interoperability, their values SHOULD be empty.

The text components are separated by the SEMICOLON character (U+003B). Where it makes semantic sense, individual text components can include multiple text values (e.g., a "street" component with multiple lines) separated by the COMMA character (U+002C).

The property can include the "PREF" parameter to indicate the preferred delivery address when more than one address is specified.

The GEO and TZ parameters MAY be used with this property.

The property can also include a "LABEL" parameter to present a delivery address label for the address. Its value is a plain-text string representing the formatted address. Newlines are encoded as \n, as they are for property values.

ABNF:

  label-param = "LABEL=" param-value

  ADR-param = "VALUE=text" / label-param / language-param
            / geo-parameter / tz-parameter / altid-param / pid-param
            / pref-param / type-param / any-param

  ADR-value = ADR-component-pobox ";" ADR-component-ext ";"
              ADR-component-street ";" ADR-component-locality ";"
              ADR-component-region ";" ADR-component-code ";"
              ADR-component-country
  ADR-component-pobox    = list-component
  ADR-component-ext      = list-component
  ADR-component-street   = list-component
  ADR-component-locality = list-component
  ADR-component-region   = list-component
  ADR-component-code     = list-component
  ADR-component-country  = list-component

Example:

In this example, the post office box and the extended address are absent.

  ADR;GEO="geo:12.3457,78.910";LABEL="Mr. John Q. Public, Esq.\n
   Mail Drop: TNE QB\n123 Main Street\nAny Town, CA  91921-1234\n
   U.S.A.":;;123 Main Street;Any Town;CA;91921-1234;U.S.A.

7.5. Communications Properties

7.5.1. General

These properties describe information about how to communicate with the object the vCard represents.

7.5.2. TEL

Purpose:

To specify the telephone number for telephony communication with the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

By default, it is a single free-form text value (for backward compatibility with vCard 3), but it SHOULD be reset to a URI value. It is expected that the URI scheme will be "tel", as specified in RFC 3966, but other schemes MAY be used.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

This property is based on the X.520 Telephone Number attribute CCITT Recommendation X520.

The property can include the "PREF" parameter to indicate a preferred-use telephone number.

The property can include the parameter "TYPE" to specify intended use for the telephone number. The predefined values for the TYPE parameter are:

Table 2

Value Description
text Indicates that the telephone number supports text messages (SMS).
voice Indicates a voice telephone number.
fax Indicates a facsimile telephone number.
cell Indicates a cellular or mobile telephone number.
video Indicates a video conferencing telephone number.
pager Indicates a paging device telephone number.
textphone Indicates a telecommunication device for people with hearing or speech difficulties.

The default type is "voice". These type parameter values can be specified as a parameter list (e.g., TYPE=text;TYPE=voice) or as a value list (e.g., TYPE="text,voice"). The default can be overridden to another set of values by specifying one or more alternate values. For example, the default TYPE of "voice" can be reset to a VOICE and FAX telephone number by the value list TYPE="voice,fax".

If this property’s value is a URI that can also be used for instant messaging, the IMPP (Clause 7.5.4) property SHOULD be used in addition to this property.

ABNF:

  TEL-param = TEL-text-param / TEL-uri-param
  TEL-value = TEL-text-value / TEL-uri-value
    ; Value and parameter MUST match.

  TEL-text-param = "VALUE=text"
  TEL-text-value = text

  TEL-uri-param = "VALUE=uri" / mediatype-param
  TEL-uri-value = URI

  TEL-param =/ type-param / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param
             / any-param

  type-param-tel = "text" / "voice" / "fax" / "cell" / "video"
                 / "pager" / "textphone" / iana-token / x-name
    ; type-param-tel MUST NOT be used with a property other than TEL.

Example:

  TEL;VALUE=uri;PREF=1;TYPE="voice,home":tel:+1-555-555-5555;ext=5555
  TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE=home:tel:+33-01-23-45-67

7.5.3. EMAIL

Purpose:

To specify the electronic mail address for communication with the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The property can include tye "PREF" parameter to indicate a preferred-use email address when more than one is specified.

Even though the value is free-form UTF-8 text, it is likely to be interpreted by a Mail User Agent (MUA) as an "addr-spec", as defined in RFC 5322, Section 3.4.1. Readers should also be aware of the current work toward internationalized email addresses RFC 5335.

ABNF:

  EMAIL-param = "VALUE=text" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
              / altid-param / any-param
  EMAIL-value = text

Example:

        EMAIL;TYPE=work:jqpublic@xyz.example.com

        EMAIL;PREF=1:jane_doe@example.com

7.5.4. IMPP

Purpose:

To specify the URI for instant messaging and presence protocol communications with the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single URI.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The property may include the "PREF" parameter to indicate that this is a preferred address and has the same semantics as the "PREF" parameter in a TEL property.

If this property’s value is a URI that can be used for voice and/or video, the TEL property (Clause 7.5.2) SHOULD be used in addition to this property.

This property is adapted from RFC 4770, which is made obsolete by this document.

ABNF:

  IMPP-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
             / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
  IMPP-value = URI

Example:

    IMPP;PREF=1:xmpp:alice@example.com

7.5.5. LANG

Purpose:

To specify the language(s) that may be used for contacting the entity associated with the vCard.

Value type:

A single language-tag value.

Cardinality:

*

ABNF:

  LANG-param = "VALUE=language-tag" / pid-param / pref-param
             / altid-param / type-param / any-param
  LANG-value = Language-Tag

Example:

    LANG;TYPE=work;PREF=1:en
    LANG;TYPE=work;PREF=2:fr
    LANG;TYPE=home:fr

7.6. Geographical Properties

7.6.1. General

These properties are concerned with information associated with geographical positions or regions associated with the object the vCard represents.

7.6.2. TZ

Purpose:

To specify information related to the time zone of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

The default is a single text value. It can also be reset to a single URI or utc-offset value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

It is expected that names from the public-domain Olson database TZ-DB will be used, but this is not a restriction. See also IANA TZ.

Efforts are currently being directed at creating a standard URI scheme for expressing time zone information. Usage of such a scheme would ensure a high level of interoperability between implementations that support it.

Note that utc-offset values SHOULD NOT be used because the UTC offset varies with time — not just because of the usual daylight saving time shifts that occur in may regions, but often entire regions will "re-base" their overall offset. The actual offset may be +/- 1 hour (or perhaps a little more) than the one given.

ABNF:

  TZ-param = "VALUE=" ("text" / "uri" / "utc-offset")
  TZ-value = text / URI / utc-offset
    ; Value and parameter MUST match.

  TZ-param =/ altid-param / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
            / mediatype-param / any-param

Examples:

  TZ:Raleigh/North America

  TZ;VALUE=utc-offset:-0500
    ; Note: utc-offset format is NOT RECOMMENDED.

7.6.3. GEO

Purpose:

To specify information related to the global positioning of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single URI.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The "geo" URI scheme RFC 5870 is particularly well suited for this property, but other schemes MAY be used.

ABNF:

  GEO-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
            / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
  GEO-value = URI

Example:

        GEO:geo:37.386013,-122.082932

7.7. Organizational Properties

7.7.1. General

These properties are concerned with information associated with characteristics of the organization or organizational units of the object that the vCard represents.

7.7.2. TITLE

Purpose:

To specify the position or job of the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality: *

Special notes:

This property is based on the X.520 Title attribute CCITT Recommendation X520.

ABNF:

  TITLE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param
              / pref-param / altid-param / type-param / any-param
  TITLE-value = text

Example:

        TITLE:Research Scientist

7.7.3. ROLE

Purpose:

To specify the function or part played in a particular situation by the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes: This property is based on the X.520 Business Category explanatory attribute CCITT Recommendation X520. This property is included as an organizational type to avoid confusion with the semantics of the TITLE property and incorrect usage of that property when the semantics of this property is intended.

ABNF:

  ROLE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
             / type-param / altid-param / any-param
  ROLE-value = text

Example:

        ROLE:Project Leader

7.7.4. LOGO

Purpose:

To specify a graphic image of a logo associated with the object the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single URI.

Cardinality:

*

ABNF:

  LOGO-param = "VALUE=uri" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
             / type-param / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
  LOGO-value = URI

Examples:

  LOGO:http://www.example.com/pub/logos/abccorp.jpg

  LOGO:data:image/jpeg;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIhvc
   AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
   ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
   <...the remainder of base64-encoded data...>

7.7.5. ORG

Purpose:

To specify the organizational name and units associated with the vCard.

Value type:

A single structured text value consisting of components separated by the SEMICOLON character (U+003B).

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The property is based on the X.520 Organization Name and Organization Unit attributes CCITT Recommendation X520. The property value is a structured type consisting of the organization name, followed by zero or more levels of organizational unit names.

The SORT-AS parameter MAY be applied to this property.

ABNF:

  ORG-param = "VALUE=text" / sort-as-param / language-param
            / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param / type-param
            / any-param
  ORG-value = component *(";" component)

Example:

A property value consisting of an organizational name, organizational unit #1 name, and organizational unit #2 name.

        ORG:ABC\, Inc.;North American Division;Marketing

7.7.6. MEMBER

Purpose:

To include a member in the group this vCard represents.

Value type:

A single URI. It MAY refer to something other than a vCard object. For example, an email distribution list could employ the "mailto" URI scheme RFC 6068 for efficiency.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

This property MUST NOT be present unless the value of the KIND property is "group".

ABNF:

  MEMBER-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / altid-param
               / mediatype-param / any-param
  MEMBER-value = URI

Examples:

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  KIND:group
  FN:The Doe family
  MEMBER:urn:uuid:03a0e51f-d1aa-4385-8a53-e29025acd8af
  MEMBER:urn:uuid:b8767877-b4a1-4c70-9acc-505d3819e519
  END:VCARD
  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  FN:John Doe
  UID:urn:uuid:03a0e51f-d1aa-4385-8a53-e29025acd8af
  END:VCARD
  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  FN:Jane Doe
  UID:urn:uuid:b8767877-b4a1-4c70-9acc-505d3819e519
  END:VCARD

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  KIND:group
  FN:Funky distribution list
  MEMBER:mailto:subscriber1@example.com
  MEMBER:xmpp:subscriber2@example.com
  MEMBER:sip:subscriber3@example.com
  MEMBER:tel:+1-418-555-5555
  END:VCARD

7.7.7. RELATED

Purpose:

To specify a relationship between another entity and the entity represented by this vCard.

Value type:

A single URI. It can also be reset to a single text value. The text value can be used to specify textual information.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

The TYPE parameter MAY be used to characterize the related entity. It contains a comma-separated list of values that are registered with IANA as described in Clause 11.2. The registry is pre-populated with the values defined in XFN. This document also specifies two additional values:

agent:

an entity who may sometimes act on behalf of the entity associated with the vCard.

emergency:

indicates an emergency contact

ABNF:

  RELATED-param = RELATED-param-uri / RELATED-param-text
  RELATED-value = URI / text
    ; Parameter and value MUST match.

  RELATED-param-uri = "VALUE=uri" / mediatype-param
  RELATED-param-text = "VALUE=text" / language-param

  RELATED-param =/ pid-param / pref-param / altid-param / type-param
                 / any-param

  type-param-related = related-type-value *("," related-type-value)
    ; type-param-related MUST NOT be used with a property other than
    ; RELATED.

  related-type-value = "contact" / "acquaintance" / "friend" / "met"
                     / "co-worker" / "colleague" / "co-resident"
                     / "neighbor" / "child" / "parent"
                     / "sibling" / "spouse" / "kin" / "muse"
                     / "crush" / "date" / "sweetheart" / "me"
                     / "agent" / "emergency"

Examples:

RELATED;TYPE=friend:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6
RELATED;TYPE=contact:http://example.com/directory/jdoe.vcf
RELATED;TYPE=co-worker;VALUE=text:Please contact my assistant Jane
 Doe for any inquiries.

7.8. Explanatory Properties

7.8.1. General

These properties are concerned with additional explanations, such as that related to informational notes or revisions specific to the vCard.

7.8.2. CATEGORIES

Purpose:

To specify application category information about the vCard, also known as "tags".

Value type:

One or more text values separated by a COMMA character (U+002C).

Cardinality:

*

ABNF:

  CATEGORIES-param = "VALUE=text" / pid-param / pref-param
                   / type-param / altid-param / any-param
  CATEGORIES-value = text-list

Example:

        CATEGORIES:TRAVEL AGENT

        CATEGORIES:INTERNET,IETF,INDUSTRY,INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY

7.8.3. NOTE

Purpose:

To specify supplemental information or a comment that is associated with the vCard.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes: The property is based on the X.520 Description attribute CCITT Recommendation X520.

ABNF:

  NOTE-param = "VALUE=text" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
             / type-param / altid-param / any-param
  NOTE-value = text

Example:

        NOTE:This fax number is operational 0800 to 1715
          EST\, Mon-Fri.

7.8.4. PRODID

Purpose:

To specify the identifier for the product that created the vCard object.

Type value:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

*1

Special notes:

Implementations SHOULD use a method such as that specified for Formal Public Identifiers in ISO 9070 or for Universal Resource Names in RFC 3406 to ensure that the text value is unique.

ABNF:

  PRODID-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
  PRODID-value = text

Example:

        PRODID:-//ONLINE DIRECTORY//NONSGML Version 1//EN

7.8.5. REV

Purpose:

To specify revision information about the current vCard.

Value type:

A single timestamp value.

Cardinality:

*1

Special notes:

The value distinguishes the current revision of the information in this vCard for other renditions of the information.

ABNF:

  REV-param = "VALUE=timestamp" / any-param
  REV-value = timestamp

Example:

        REV:19951031T222710Z

7.8.6. SOUND

Purpose:

To specify a digital sound content information that annotates some aspect of the vCard. This property is often used to specify the proper pronunciation of the name property value of the vCard.

Value type:

A single URI.

Cardinality:

*

ABNF:

  SOUND-param = "VALUE=uri" / language-param / pid-param / pref-param
              / type-param / mediatype-param / altid-param
              / any-param
  SOUND-value = URI

Example:

  SOUND:CID:JOHNQPUBLIC.part8.19960229T080000.xyzMail@example.com

  SOUND:data:audio/basic;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBEUwDQYJKoZIh
   AQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05ldHNjYXBlIENvbW11bm
   ljYXRpb25zIENvcnBvcmF0aW9uMRwwGgYDVQQLExNJbmZvcm1hdGlvbiBTeXN0
   <...the remainder of base64-encoded data...>

7.8.7. UID

Purpose:

To specify a value that represents a globally unique identifier corresponding to the entity associated with the vCard.

Value type:

A single URI value. It MAY also be reset to free-form text.

Cardinality:

*1

Special notes:

This property is used to uniquely identify the object that the vCard represents. The "uuid" URN namespace defined in RFC 4122 is particularly well suited to this task, but other URI schemes MAY be used. Free-form text MAY also be used.

ABNF:

  UID-param = UID-uri-param / UID-text-param
  UID-value = UID-uri-value / UID-text-value
    ; Value and parameter MUST match.

  UID-uri-param = "VALUE=uri"
  UID-uri-value = URI

  UID-text-param = "VALUE=text"
  UID-text-value = text

  UID-param =/ any-param

Example:

        UID:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6

7.8.8. CLIENTPIDMAP

Purpose:

To give a global meaning to a local PID source identifier.

Value type:

A semicolon-separated pair of values. The first field is a small integer corresponding to the second field of a PID parameter instance. The second field is a URI. The "uuid" URN namespace defined in RFC 4122 is particularly well suited to this task, but other URI schemes MAY be used.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

PID source identifiers (the source identifier is the second field in a PID parameter instance) are small integers that only have significance within the scope of a single vCard instance. Each distinct source identifier present in a vCard MUST have an associated CLIENTPIDMAP. See Clause 8 for more details on the usage of CLIENTPIDMAP.

PID source identifiers MUST be strictly positive. Zero is not allowed.

As a special exception, the PID parameter MUST NOT be applied to this property.

ABNF:

  CLIENTPIDMAP-param = any-param
  CLIENTPIDMAP-value = 1*DIGIT ";" URI

Example:

  TEL;PID=3.1,4.2;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
  EMAIL;PID=4.1,5.2:jdoe@example.com
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:3df403f4-5924-4bb7-b077-3c711d9eb34b
  CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:d89c9c7a-2e1b-4832-82de-7e992d95faa5

7.8.9. URL

Purpose:

To specify a uniform resource locator associated with the object to which the vCard refers. Examples for individuals include personal web sites, blogs, and social networking site identifiers.

Cardinality:

*

Value type:

A single uri value.

ABNF:

  URL-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
            / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
  URL-value = URI

Example:

        URL:http://example.org/restaurant.french/~chezchic.html

7.8.10. VERSION

Purpose:

To specify the version of the vCard specification used to format this vCard.

Value type:

A single text value.

Cardinality:

1

Special notes:

This property MUST be present in the vCard object, and it must appear immediately after BEGIN:VCARD. The value MUST be "4.0" if the vCard corresponds to this specification. Note that earlier versions of vCard allowed this property to be placed anywhere in the vCard object, or even to be absent.

ABNF:

  VERSION-param = "VALUE=text" / any-param
  VERSION-value = "4.0"

Example:

        VERSION:4.0

7.9. Security Properties

7.9.1. General

These properties are concerned with the security of communication pathways or access to the vCard.

7.9.2. KEY

Purpose:

To specify a public key or authentication certificate associated with the object that the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single URI. It can also be reset to a text value.

Cardinality:

*

ABNF:

  KEY-param = KEY-uri-param / KEY-text-param
  KEY-value = KEY-uri-value / KEY-text-value
    ; Value and parameter MUST match.

  KEY-uri-param = "VALUE=uri" / mediatype-param
  KEY-uri-value = URI

  KEY-text-param = "VALUE=text"
  KEY-text-value = text

  KEY-param =/ altid-param / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
             / any-param

Examples:

  KEY:http://www.example.com/keys/jdoe.cer

  KEY;MEDIATYPE=application/pgp-keys:ftp://example.com/keys/jdoe

  KEY:data:application/pgp-keys;base64,MIICajCCAdOgAwIBAgICBE
   UwDQYJKoZIhvcNAQEEBQAwdzELMAkGA1UEBhMCVVMxLDAqBgNVBAoTI05l
   <... remainder of base64-encoded data ...>

7.10. Calendar Properties

7.10.1. General

These properties are further specified in RFC 2739.

7.10.2. FBURL

Purpose:

To specify the URI for the busy time associated with the object that the vCard represents.

Value type:

A single URI value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

Where multiple FBURL properties are specified, the default FBURL property is indicated with the PREF parameter. The FTP RFC 1738 or HTTP RFC 2616 type of URI points to an iCalendar RFC 5545 object associated with a snapshot of the next few weeks or months of busy time data. If the iCalendar object is represented as a file or document, its file extension should be ".ifb".

ABNF:

  FBURL-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
              / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
  FBURL-value = URI

Examples:

  FBURL;PREF=1:http://www.example.com/busy/janedoe
  FBURL;MEDIATYPE=text/calendar:ftp://example.com/busy/project-a.ifb

7.10.3. CALADRURI

Purpose:

To specify the calendar user address RFC 5545 to which a scheduling request RFC 5546 should be sent for the object represented by the vCard.

Value type:

A single URI value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

Where multiple CALADRURI properties are specified, the default CALADRURI property is indicated with the PREF parameter.

ABNF:

  CALADRURI-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
                  / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
  CALADRURI-value = URI

Example:

  CALADRURI;PREF=1:mailto:janedoe@example.com
  CALADRURI:http://example.com/calendar/jdoe

7.10.4. CALURI

Purpose:

To specify the URI for a calendar associated with the object represented by the vCard.

Value type:

A single URI value.

Cardinality:

*

Special notes:

Where multiple CALURI properties are specified, the default CALURI property is indicated with the PREF parameter. The property should contain a URI pointing to an iCalendar RFC 5545 object associated with a snapshot of the user’s calendar store. If the iCalendar object is represented as a file or document, its file extension should be ".ics".

ABNF:

  CALURI-param = "VALUE=uri" / pid-param / pref-param / type-param
               / mediatype-param / altid-param / any-param
  CALURI-value = URI

Examples:

  CALURI;PREF=1:http://cal.example.com/calA
  CALURI;MEDIATYPE=text/calendar:ftp://ftp.example.com/calA.ics

7.11. Extended Properties and Parameters

The properties and parameters defined by this document can be extended. Non-standard, private properties and parameters with a name starting with "X-" may be defined bilaterally between two cooperating agents without outside registration or standardization.

8.  Synchronization

8.1. General

vCard data often needs to be synchronized between devices. In this context, synchronization is defined as the intelligent merging of two representations of the same object. vCard 4.0 includes mechanisms to aid this process.

8.2. Mechanisms

8.2.1. General

Two mechanisms are available: the UID property is used to match multiple instances of the same vCard, while the PID parameter is used to match multiple instances of the same property.

The term "matching" is used here to mean recognizing that two instances are in fact representations of the same object. For example, a single vCard that is shared with someone results in two vCard instances. After they have evolved separately, they still represent the same object, and therefore may be matched by a synchronization engine.

8.2.2. Matching vCard Instances

vCard instances for which the UID properties (Clause 7.8.7) are equivalent MUST be matched. Equivalence is determined as specified in RFC 3986, Section 6.

In all other cases, vCard instances MAY be matched at the discretion of the synchronization engine.

8.2.3. Matching Property Instances

Property instances belonging to unmatched vCards MUST NOT be matched.

Property instances whose name (e.g., EMAIL, TEL, etc.) is not the same MUST NOT be matched.

Property instances whose name is CLIENTPIDMAP are handled separately and MUST NOT be matched. The synchronization MUST ensure that there is consistency of CLIENTPIDMAPs among matched vCard instances.

Property instances belonging to matched vCards, whose name is the same, and whose maximum cardinality is 1, MUST be matched.

Property instances belonging to matched vCards, whose name is the same, and whose PID parameters match, MUST be matched. See Clause 8.2.4 for details on PID matching.

In all other cases, property instances MAY be matched at the discretion of the synchronization engine.

8.2.4. PID Matching

Two PID values for which the first fields are equivalent represent the same local value.

Two PID values representing the same local value and for which the second fields point to CLIENTPIDMAP properties whose second field URIs are equivalent (as specified in RFC 3986, Section 6) also represent the same global value.

PID parameters for which at least one pair of their values represent the same global value MUST be matched.

In all other cases, PID parameters MAY be matched at the discretion of the synchronization engine.

For example, PID value "5.1", in the first vCard below, and PID value "5.2", in the second vCard below, represent the same global value.

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  EMAIL;PID=4.2,5.1:jdoe@example.com
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:3eef374e-7179-4196-a914-27358c3e6527
  CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:42bcd5a7-1699-4514-87b4-056edf68e9cc
  END:VCARD
  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  EMAIL;PID=5.1,5.2:john@example.com
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:0c75c629-6a8d-4d5e-a07f-1bb35846854d
  CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:3eef374e-7179-4196-a914-27358c3e6527
  END:VCARD

8.3. Example

8.3.1. Creation

The following simple vCard is first created on a given device.

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
  FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
  N:Doe;J.;;;
  EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
  END:VCARD

This new vCard is assigned the UID "urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1" by the creating device. The FN and EMAIL properties are assigned the same local value of 1, and this value is given global context by associating it with "urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556", which represents the creating device. We are at liberty to reuse the same local value since instances of different properties will never be matched. The N property has no PID because it is forbidden by its maximum cardinality of 1.

8.3.2. Initial Sharing

This vCard is shared with a second device. Upon inspecting the UID property, the second device understands that this is a new vCard (i.e., unmatched) and thus the synchronization results in a simple copy.

8.3.3. Adding and Sharing a Property

A new phone number is created on the first device, then the vCard is shared with the second device. This is what the second device receives:

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
  FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
  N:Doe;J.;;;
  EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
  TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
  END:VCARD

Upon inspecting the UID property, the second device matches the vCard it received to the vCard that it already has stored. It then starts comparing the properties of the two vCards in same-named pairs.

The FN properties are matched because the PID parameters have the same global value. Since the property value is the same, no update takes place.

The N properties are matched automatically because their maximum cardinality is 1. Since the property value is the same, no update takes place.

The EMAIL properties are matched because the PID parameters have the same global value. Since the property value is the same, no update takes place.

The TEL property in the new vCard is not matched to any in the stored vCard because no property in the stored vCard has the same name. Therefore, this property is copied from the new vCard to the stored vCard.

The CLIENTPIDMAP property is handled separately by the synchronization engine. It ensures that it is consistent with the stored one. If it was not, the results would be up to the synchronization engine, and thus undefined by this document.

8.3.4. Simultaneous Editing

A new email address and a new phone number are added to the vCard on each of the two devices, and then a new synchronization event happens. Here are the vCards that are communicated to each other:

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
  FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
  N:Doe;J.;;;
  EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
  EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
  TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
  TEL;PID=2.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
  END:VCARD
  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
  FN;PID=1.1:J. Doe
  N:Doe;J.;;;
  EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
  EMAIL;PID=2.2:ceo@example.com
  TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
  TEL;PID=2.2;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
  CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee
  END:VCARD

On the first device, the same PID source identifier (1) is reused for the new EMAIL and TEL properties. On the second device, a new source identifier (2) is generated, and a corresponding CLIENTPIDMAP property is created. It contains the second device’s identifier, "urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee".

The new EMAIL properties are unmatched on both sides since the PID global value is new in both cases. The sync thus results in a copy on both sides.

Although the situation appears to be the same for the TEL properties, in this case, the synchronization engine is particularly smart and matches the two new TEL properties even though their PID global values are different. Note that in this case, the rules of Clause 8.2.3 state that two properties MAY be matched at the discretion of the synchronization engine. Therefore, the two properties are merged.

All this results in the following vCard, which is stored on both devices:

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
  FN:J. Doe
  N:Doe;J.;;;
  EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
  EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
  EMAIL;PID=2.2:ceo@example.com
  TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
  TEL;PID=2.1,2.2;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
  CLIENTPIDMAP:2;urn:uuid:1f762d2b-03c4-4a83-9a03-75ff658a6eee
  END:VCARD

8.3.5. Global Context Simplification

The two devices finish their synchronization procedure by simplifying their global contexts. Since they haven’t talked to any other device, the following vCard is for all purposes equivalent to the above. It is also shorter.

  BEGIN:VCARD
  VERSION:4.0
  UID:urn:uuid:4fbe8971-0bc3-424c-9c26-36c3e1eff6b1
  FN:J. Doe
  N:Doe;J.;;;
  EMAIL;PID=1.1:jdoe@example.com
  EMAIL;PID=2.1:boss@example.com
  EMAIL;PID=3.1:ceo@example.com
  TEL;PID=1.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-555-555-5555
  TEL;PID=2.1;VALUE=uri:tel:+1-666-666-6666
  CLIENTPIDMAP:1;urn:uuid:53e374d9-337e-4727-8803-a1e9c14e0556
  END:VCARD

The details of global context simplification are unspecified by this document. They are left up to the synchronization engine. This example is merely intended to illustrate the possibility, which investigating would be, in the author’s opinion, worthwhile.

9.  Example: Author’s vCard

 BEGIN:VCARD
 VERSION:4.0
 FN:Simon Perreault
 N:Perreault;Simon;;;ing. jr,M.Sc.
 BDAY:--0203
 ANNIVERSARY:20090808T1430-0500
 GENDER:M
 LANG;PREF=1:fr
 LANG;PREF=2:en
 ORG;TYPE=work:Viagenie
 ADR;TYPE=work:;Suite D2-630;2875 Laurier;
  Quebec;QC;G1V 2M2;Canada
 TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE="work,voice";PREF=1:tel:+1-418-656-9254;ext=102
 TEL;VALUE=uri;TYPE="work,cell,voice,video,text":tel:+1-418-262-6501
 EMAIL;TYPE=work:simon.perreault@viagenie.ca
 GEO;TYPE=work:geo:46.772673,-71.282945
 KEY;TYPE=work;VALUE=uri:
  http://www.viagenie.ca/simon.perreault/simon.asc
 TZ:-0500
 URL;TYPE=home:http://nomis80.org
 END:VCARD

10.  Security Considerations

11.  IANA Considerations

11.1. Media Type Registration

IANA has registered the following Media Type (in http://www.iana.org) and marked the text/directory Media Type as DEPRECATED.

To:

ietf-types@iana.org

Subject:

Registration of media type text/vcard

Type name:

text

Subtype name:

vcard

Required parameters:

none

Optional parameters:

version

The "version" parameter is to be interpreted identically as the VERSION vCard property. If this parameter is present, all vCards in a text/vcard body part MUST have a VERSION property with value identical to that of this MIME parameter.

"charset": as defined for text/plain RFC 2046; encodings other than UTF-8 RFC 3629 MUST NOT be used.

Encoding considerations:

8bit

Security considerations:

See Clause 10.

Interoperability considerations:

The text/vcard media type is intended to identify vCard data of any version. There are older specifications of vCard RFC 2426 Internet Mail Consortium vCard still in common use. While these formats are similar, they are not strictly compatible. In general, it is necessary to inspect the value of the VERSION property (see Clause 7.8.10) for identifying the standard to which a given vCard object conforms.

In addition, the following media types are known to have been used to refer to vCard data. They should be considered deprecated in favor of text/vcard.

  • text/directory

  • text/directory; profile=vcard

  • text/x-vcard

Published specification:

RFC 6350

Applications that use this media type:

They are numerous, diverse, and include mail user agents, instant messaging clients, address book applications, directory servers, and customer relationship management software.

Additional information:

Magic number(s):

File extension(s):

.vcf .vcard

Macintosh file type code(s):

Person & email address to contact for further information:

vCard discussion mailing list <vcarddav@ietf.org>

Intended usage:

COMMON

Restrictions on usage:

none

Author:

Simon Perreault

Change controller:

IETF

11.2. Registering New vCard Elements

11.2.1. General

This section defines the process for registering new or modified vCard elements (i.e., properties, parameters, value data types, and values) with IANA.

11.2.2. Registration Procedure

The IETF has created a mailing list, vcarddav@ietf.org, which can be used for public discussion of vCard element proposals prior to registration. Use of the mailing list is strongly encouraged. The IESG has appointed a designated expert who will monitor the vcarddav@ietf.org mailing list and review registrations.

Registration of new vCard elements MUST be reviewed by the designated expert and published in an RFC. A Standards Track RFC is REQUIRED for the registration of new value data types that modify existing properties. A Standards Track RFC is also REQUIRED for registration of vCard elements that modify vCard elements previously documented in a Standards Track RFC.

The registration procedure begins when a completed registration template, defined in the sections below, is sent to vcarddav@ietf.org and iana@iana.org. Within two weeks, the designated expert is expected to tell IANA and the submitter of the registration whether the registration is approved, approved with minor changes, or rejected with cause. When a registration is rejected with cause, it can be re-submitted if the concerns listed in the cause are addressed. Decisions made by the designated expert can be appealed to the IESG Applications Area Director, then to the IESG. They follow the normal appeals procedure for IESG decisions.

Once the registration procedure concludes successfully, IANA creates or modifies the corresponding record in the vCard registry. The completed registration template is discarded.

An RFC specifying new vCard elements MUST include the completed registration templates, which MAY be expanded with additional information. These completed templates are intended to go in the body of the document, not in the IANA Considerations section.

Finally, note that there is an XML representation for vCard defined in RFC 6351. An XML representation SHOULD be defined for new vCard elements.

11.2.3. Vendor Namespace

The vendor namespace is used for vCard elements associated with commercially available products. "Vendor" or "producer" are construed as equivalent and very broadly in this context.

A registration may be placed in the vendor namespace by anyone who needs to interchange files associated with the particular product. However, the registration formally belongs to the vendor or organization handling the vCard elements in the namespace being registered. Changes to the specification will be made at their request, as discussed in subsequent sections.

vCard elements belonging to the vendor namespace will be distinguished by the "VND-" prefix. This is followed by an IANA- registered Private Enterprise Number (PEN), a dash, and a vCard element designation of the vendor’s choosing (e.g., "VND-123456- MUDPIE").

While public exposure and review of vCard elements to be registered in the vendor namespace are not required, using the vcarddav@ietf.org mailing list for review is strongly encouraged to improve the quality of those specifications. Registrations in the vendor namespace may be submitted directly to the IANA.

11.2.4. Registration Template for Properties

A property is defined by completing the following template.

Namespace:

Empty for the global namespace, "VND-NNNN-" for a vendor- specific property (where NNNN is replaced by the vendor’s PEN).

Property name:

The name of the property.

Purpose:

The purpose of the property. Give a short but clear description.

Value type:

Any of the valid value types for the property value needs to be specified. The default value type also needs to be specified.

Cardinality:

See Clause 7.

Property parameters:

Any of the valid property parameters for the property MUST be specified.

Description:

Any special notes about the property, how it is to be used, etc.

Format definition:

The ABNF for the property definition needs to be specified.

Example(s):

One or more examples of instances of the property need to be specified.

11.2.5. Registration Template for Parameters

A parameter is defined by completing the following template.

Namespace:

Empty for the global namespace, "VND-NNNN-" for a vendor- specific property (where NNNN is replaced by the vendor’s PEN).

Parameter name:

The name of the parameter.

Purpose:

The purpose of the parameter. Give a short but clear description.

Description:

Any special notes about the parameter, how it is to be used, etc.

Format definition:

The ABNF for the parameter definition needs to be specified.

Example(s):

One or more examples of instances of the parameter need to be specified.

11.2.6. Registration Template for Value Data Types

A value data type is defined by completing the following template.

Value name:

The name of the value type.

Purpose:

The purpose of the value type. Give a short but clear description.

Description:

Any special notes about the value type, how it is to be used, etc.

Format definition:

The ABNF for the value type definition needs to be specified.

Example(s):

One or more examples of instances of the value type need to be specified.

11.2.7. Registration Template for Values

A value is defined by completing the following template.

Value:

The value literal.

Purpose:

The purpose of the value. Give a short but clear description.

Conformance:

The vCard properties and/or parameters that can take this value needs to be specified.

Example(s):

One or more examples of instances of the value need to be specified.

The following is a fictitious example of a registration of a vCard value:

Value:

supervisor

Purpose:

It means that the related entity is the direct hierarchical superior (i.e., supervisor or manager) of the entity this vCard represents.

Conformance:

This value can be used with the "TYPE" parameter applied on the "RELATED" property.

Example(s):

RELATED;TYPE=supervisor:urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6

11.3. Initial vCard Elements Registries

11.3.1. General

The IANA has created and will maintain the following registries for vCard elements with pointers to appropriate reference documents. The registries are grouped together under the heading "vCard Elements".

11.3.2. Properties Registry

The following table has been used to initialize the properties registry.

Table 3

Namespace Property Reference
SOURCE RFC 6350, Section 6.1.3
KIND RFC 6350, Section 6.1.4
XML RFC 6350, Section 6.1.5
FN RFC 6350, Section 6.2.1
N RFC 6350, Section 6.2.2
NICKNAME RFC 6350, Section 6.2.3
PHOTO RFC 6350, Section 6.2.4
BDAY RFC 6350, Section 6.2.5
ANNIVERSARY RFC 6350, Section 6.2.6
GENDER RFC 6350, Section 6.2.7
ADR RFC 6350, Section 6.3.1
TEL RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
EMAIL RFC 6350, Section 6.4.2
IMPP RFC 6350, Section 6.4.3
LANG RFC 6350, Section 6.4.4
TZ RFC 6350, Section 6.5.1
GEO RFC 6350, Section 6.5.2
TITLE RFC 6350, Section 6.6.1
ROLE RFC 6350, Section 6.6.2
LOGO RFC 6350, Section 6.6.3
ORG RFC 6350, Section 6.6.4
MEMBER RFC 6350, Section 6.6.5
RELATED RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6
CATEGORIES RFC 6350, Section 6.7.1
NOTE RFC 6350, Section 6.7.2
PRODID RFC 6350, Section 6.7.3
REV RFC 6350, Section 6.7.4
SOUND RFC 6350, Section 6.7.5
UID RFC 6350, Section 6.7.6
CLIENTPIDMAP RFC 6350, Section 6.7.7
URL RFC 6350, Section 6.7.8
VERSION RFC 6350, Section 6.7.9
KEY RFC 6350, Section 6.8.1
FBURL RFC 6350, Section 6.9.1
CALADRURI RFC 6350, Section 6.9.2
CALURI RFC 6350, Section 6.9.3

11.3.3. Parameters Registry

The following table has been used to initialize the parameters registry.

Table 4

Namespace Parameter Reference
LANGUAGE RFC 6350, Section 5.1
VALUE RFC 6350, Section 5.2
PREF RFC 6350, Section 5.3
ALTID RFC 6350, Section 5.4
PID RFC 6350, Section 5.5
TYPE RFC 6350, Section 5.6
MEDIATYPE RFC 6350, Section 5.7
CALSCALE RFC 6350, Section 5.8
SORT-AS RFC 6350, Section 5.9
GEO RFC 6350, Section 5.10
TZ RFC 6350, Section 5.11

11.3.4. Value Data Types Registry

The following table has been used to initialize the parameters registry.

Table 5

Value Data Type Reference
BOOLEAN RFC 6350, Section 4.4
DATE RFC 6350, Section 4.3.1
DATE-AND-OR-TIME RFC 6350, Section 4.3.4
DATE-TIME RFC 6350, Section 4.3.3
FLOAT RFC 6350, Section 4.6
INTEGER RFC 6350, Section 4.5
LANGUAGE-TAG RFC 6350, Section 4.8
TEXT RFC 6350, Section 4.1
TIME RFC 6350, Section 4.3.2
TIMESTAMP RFC 6350, Section 4.3.5
URI RFC 6350, Section 4.2
UTC-OFFSET RFC 6350, Section 4.7

11.3.5. Values Registries

Separate tables are used for property and parameter values.

The following table is to be used to initialize the property values registry.

Table 6

Property Value Reference
BEGIN VCARD RFC 6350, Section 6.1.1
END VCARD RFC 6350, Section 6.1.2
KIND individual RFC 6350, Section 6.1.4
KIND group RFC 6350, Section 6.1.4
KIND org RFC 6350, Section 6.1.4
KIND location RFC 6350, Section 6.1.4

The following table has been used to initialize the parameter values registry.

Table 7

Property Parameter Value Reference
FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO, ADR, TEL, EMAIL, IMPP, LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, ORG, RELATED, CATEGORIES, NOTE, SOUND, URL, KEY, FBURL, CALADRURI, and CALURI TYPE work RFC 6350, Section 5.6
FN, NICKNAME, PHOTO, ADR, TEL, EMAIL, IMPP, LANG, TZ, GEO, TITLE, ROLE, LOGO, ORG, RELATED, CATEGORIES, NOTE, SOUND, URL, KEY, FBURL, CALADRURI, and CALURI TYPE home RFC 6350, Section 5.6
TEL TYPE text RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
TEL TYPE voice RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
TEL TYPE fax RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
TEL TYPE cell RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
TEL TYPE video RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
TEL TYPE pager RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
TEL TYPE textphone RFC 6350, Section 6.4.1
BDAY, ANNIVERSARY CALSCALE gregorian RFC 6350, Section 5.8
RELATED TYPE contact RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE acquaintance RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE friend RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE met RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE co-worker RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE colleague RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE co-resident RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE neighbor RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE child RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE parent RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE sibling RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE spouse RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE kin RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE muse RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE crush RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE date RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE sweetheart RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE me RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6 and XFN
RELATED TYPE agent RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6
RELATED TYPE emergency RFC 6350, Section 6.6.6

Appendix A (informative) Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Tim Howes, Mark Smith, and Frank Dawson, the original authors of RFC 2425 and RFC 2426, Pete Resnick, who got this effort started and provided help along the way, as well as the following individuals who have participated in the drafting, review, and discussion of this memo:

Aki Niemi, Andy Mabbett, Alexander Mayrhofer, Alexey Melnikov, Anil Srivastava, Barry Leiba, Ben Fortuna, Bernard Desruisseaux, Bernie Hoeneisen, Bjoern Hoehrmann, Caleb Richardson, Chris Bryant, Chris Newman, Cyrus Daboo, Daisuke Miyakawa, Dan Brickley, Dan Mosedale, Dany Cauchie, Darryl Champagne, Dave Thewlis, Filip Navara, Florian Zeitz, Helge Hess, Jari Urpalainen, Javier Godoy, Jean-Luc Schellens, Joe Hildebrand, Jose Luis Gayosso, Joseph Smarr, Julian Reschke, Kepeng Li, Kevin Marks, Kevin Wu Won, Kurt Zeilenga, Lisa Dusseault, Marc Blanchet, Mark Paterson, Markus Lorenz, Michael Haardt, Mike Douglass, Nick Levinson, Peter K. Sheerin, Peter Mogensen, Peter Saint-Andre, Renato Iannella, Rohit Khare, Sly Gryphon, Stephane Bortzmeyer, Tantek Celik, and Zoltan Ordogh.


Appendix B (normative) Differences from RFCs 2425 and 2426

This appendix contains a high-level overview of the major changes that have been made in the vCard specification from RFC 2425 and RFC 2426. It is incomplete, as it only lists the most important changes.

B.1. New Structure

  • RFC 2425 and RFC 2426 have been merged.

  • vCard is now not only a MIME type but a stand-alone format.

  • A proper MIME type registration form has been included.

  • UTF-8 is now the only possible character set.

  • New vCard elements can be registered from IANA.

B.2. Removed Features

  • The CONTEXT and CHARSET parameters are no more.

  • The NAME, MAILER, LABEL, and CLASS properties are no more.

  • The "intl", "dom", "postal", and "parcel" TYPE parameter values for the ADR property have been removed.

  • In-line vCards (such as the value of the AGENT property) are no longer supported.

B.3. New Properties and Parameters

  • The KIND, GENDER, LANG, ANNIVERSARY, XML, and CLIENTPIDMAP properties have been added.

  • RFC 2739, which defines the FBURL, CALADRURI, CAPURI, and CALURI properties, has been merged in.

  • RFC 4770, which defines the IMPP property, has been merged in.

  • The "work" and "home" TYPE parameter values are now applicable to many more properties.

  • The "pref" value of the TYPE parameter is now a parameter of its own, with a positive integer value indicating the level of preference.

  • The ALTID and PID parameters have been added.

  • The MEDIATYPE parameter has been added and replaces the TYPE parameter when it was used for indicating the media type of the property’s content.


Bibliography

[1]  IANA TZ, E. Lear, P. Eggert. IANA Procedures for Maintaining the Timezone Database. Work in Progress. 2011.

[2]  ISO 9070, Information Processing — SGML support facilities — Registration Procedures for Public Text Owner Identifiers.

[3]  IETF RFC 1738, Uniform Resource Locators (URL)

[4]  IETF RFC 2397, The "data" URL scheme

[5]  IETF RFC 2425, A MIME Content-Type for Directory Information

[6]  IETF RFC 2426, vCard MIME Directory Profile

[7]  IETF RFC 2616, Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1

[8]  IETF RFC 3282, Content Language Headers

[9]  IETF RFC 3406, Uniform Resource Names (URN) Namespace Definition Mechanisms

[10]  IETF RFC 3536, Terminology Used in Internationalization in the IETF

[11]  IETF RFC 4770, vCard Extensions for Instant Messaging (IM)

[12]  IETF RFC 4880, OpenPGP Message Format

[13]  IETF RFC 5335, Internationalized Email Headers

[14]  IETF RFC 5751, Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (S/MIME) Version 3.2 Message Specification

[15]  IETF RFC 6068, The 'mailto' URI Scheme

[16]  TZ-DB, A. Olson. Time zone code and data. ftp://elsie.nci.nih.gov/pub/

[17]  Internet Mail Consortium vCard, Internet Mail Consortium. vCard - The Electronic Business Card Version 2.1. 1996.